云南师范大学《当代美国》英语期末复习重点2

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云南师范大学《当代美国》英语期末复习重点2 03 Government

Americans are divided over (在…方面有意见分歧) the issue (=problem) of how strong

力量) for good (n.), (斡旋,调解) and leveling [=balancing使平(坦)] among

突出的) mission (=task使命better lives (生活)‖ (Clinton, 1997). President George W. Bush sees a lesser role [play a role/ serve a function扮演…角色] for government and more responsibility for individual people: ―By making every citizen an agent (=actor) of his or her own destiny (=fate命运, 目标), we will give our fellow Americans greater freedom from (=without) want (n.=need/ poverty脱贫) and fear, and make our society more (prosper=thrive=flurish繁荣->) prosperous and just (公正) and equal (公平). … Self-government relies (=tradition传统), in the end (=finally), on the governing of the self‖ (Bush, 2005).

美国人在强大的政府应该是什么样的这个问题上存在分歧。有些人看到政府的权力作为一种力量,调节(斡旋,调解)平衡群体和地区之间。比尔克林顿总统认为政府作为一种工具来帮助群众:“新政府最重要的任务是给所有美国人一个机会,??建立更好的生活”(克林顿,1997)。小布什总统认为政府只是小角色应给予个人更多的责任,:“每个公民都有他或她自己的命运的自主,我们将从贫困和恐惧中给以美国人民从更大的自由,使我们的社会更加繁荣、公正和平等。??最后自治政府取决对自我的管理”(布什,2005)。

American governing structures (=system体制) are typified (=characteristic of具有…的特征) by deliberate (故意的及其内阁->负责执法], Congress [国会->立法], and the federal Courts system [负责司法], each A further division of government exists in the overlapping (重叠) relationship of federal and state governments. Each state resembles (vt.象) the federal government, with separate executive (执法部门), judicial (司法), and legislative (立法) branches. Beyond this, governmental power fractures (断裂,粉碎) again to create local, county (县), or district (区) levels of authority (政府). The separation of powers (权力)and the checks and balances give many (people) access points to [=be entitled to (doing) sth.有权….] individuals or groups who are not always represented (代表) by the principle of majority (少数服从多数的原则) rule. Access (通道, 权利) allows a [singular<->plural: adj.复数的->] plurality (多元化) of interests to be heard

[=receive a hearing有机会发表意见] and appeased (平息, 安抚), holding (=uniting团结) the diverse (多样的) peoples (民族) together under the Constitution, which has been formally (正式地) amended (修改) only 17 times since the inclusion of the first ten amendments as the Bill of Rights

(人权法案) in 1791.

美国的政治结构是典型的刻意的权力的分立。联邦政府的分裂成三个部分,包括总统,国会,和联邦法院系统(行政权、立法权、司法权),每个部分都有具体的职责。然而,他们并没有完全控制自己的范围。权力的划分是复杂通过相互制衡,达到相互监督(监视)和权利限制,同时允许联邦政府制定和解释法律,。政府的进一步划分中存在联邦政府和州政府的重叠关系。每个州和联邦政府,具有独立的行政,司法,立法。除此之外,政府权力的粉碎再次创造地方,县,区各级的权威。权力分裂的制约与平衡给许多并不总是由少数服从多数的个人和群体参与政治。允许大多数的人的利益能够被听取和缓和,是不同民族团结在宪法之下,这已被正式修订17次从第十修正案在1791的比尔权力法案。 3.1 The Constitution 构成宪法) is the founding (=basic/ fundamental根本的)

决定妥协) made during the 225 years since the republic (n.共和国) was founded.

宪法是美国政府的基础法律文件。联邦政府的权力分配就是取决于宪法和自共和国建立的225年以来所做的一系列实际妥协。

In (形成) years of the nation, the idea of [portion=part->] apportioning (分配) authority the best method of ensuring (确保) (与人为善的) government. When the American Revolution ended in 1783, the Founders (创立者)– including Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton – needed to establish a system (体制, 系统) to do the business (=duty职责) of government. This meant creating [creating institute:

(1)n.学院,研究所; (2)vt.创立->] institutions (机构) to run (=manage管理) what was even then a vast territory (领土) along the Eastern seaboard (滨海地区) from Massachusetts to Georgia, and beyond to the MississippiRiver. Preserving (=Keep) order (秩序) and protecting the nation from external (外来的) threat (n. -> threaten: vt. 威胁) were uppermost (=most important) in their minds. At the same time, each state believed itself to have established its own identity (身份) in colonial times and wanted a system to protect its sovereign power (最高权力) while limiting (限制) national power. The Founders developed a double plan, which they [body: n.身体, 尸体->] embodied (体现) in the Constitution and the Bill of Rights (人权法案).The Constitution (Box 3.1) set out (=outline划出) the structure of the federal government, explaining how it should carry out (运作) its business. The Bill of Rights, appended (扩展) during the [rational: adj.理性的->ratify: 批准->] ratification (批准) process, guaranteed protections under law for state and individual (个人) rights. Essentially(=Basically), three sets of sovereignty were confirmed (肯定): federal, state, and popular (=citizen公民的).